A new model for dark matter

A new model for dark matter

This NASA Hubble House Telescope picture reveals the distribution of darkish matter within the heart of the enormous galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which accommodates about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Darkish matter is an invisible type of matter that makes up a lot of the mass of the universe. Hubble can not see darkish matter immediately. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the impact of gravitational lensing, through which mild from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by interference of matter throughout the cluster. The researchers used the noticed positions of 135 lensed photographs of 42 background galaxies to calculate the placement and quantity of darkish matter within the cluster. They mapped the inferred darkish matter concentrations, in blue, to a picture of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Superior Digicam for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity got here from solely seen galaxies, the lensing distortions can be a lot weaker. The map reveals that the densest focus of darkish matter is on the coronary heart of the cluster. Abell 1689 is positioned 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. Picture taken June 2002. Credit score: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Expertise, House Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (College of Basque Nation, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins College)

Darkish matter stays one of many nice mysteries of contemporary physics. Clearly, it should exist, as a result of with out darkish matter, for instance, the movement of galaxies can’t be defined. However darkish matter has by no means been potential to detect in an experiment.

There are at the moment many proposals for brand new experiments: aimed toward detecting darkness Factor immediately by their scattering from the elements of the atomic nuclei of the detection medium, i.e. protons and neutrons.

A workforce of researchers — Robert McGee and Aaron Pearce of the College of Michigan and Geli Ellor of the Johannes Gutenberg College in Mainz, Germany — has proposed a brand new darkish matter candidate: HYPER, or “Extremely Interactive Particulate Relics.”

Within the HYPER mannequin, a while after the formation of darkish matter in early universeIts interplay with bizarre matter is surprisingly getting stronger – making it potential to detect it right this moment and on the similar time explaining the abundance of darkish matter.

The brand new range in the dead of night matter sector

As a result of the seek for heavy darkish matter particles, or WIMPS, has not but led to success, the analysis group is in search of different darkish matter particles, particularly lighter ones. On the similar time, one would typically count on section transitions At nighttime sector – in spite of everything, there are a lot of extra within the seen sector, the researchers say. However earlier research are inclined to neglect it.

“There hasn’t been a constant mannequin of darkish matter for the mass vary that some deliberate experiments hope to hit,” stated Elor, a postdoctoral researcher. “Nevertheless, our HYPER mannequin reveals that section transition can truly assist make darkish matter simpler to detect.” . in theoretical physics at JGU.

The problem for an ample mannequin: If darkish matter interacts strongly with bizarre matter, then the (precisely identified) quantity of it fashioned within the early universe can be very small, which contradicts astrophysical observations. Nevertheless, if produced in the correct amount, the interplay can be too weak to detect darkish matter in present experiments.

“Our central concept, which underpins the HYPER mannequin, is that the interplay abruptly modifications unexpectedly – so we will get the very best of each worlds: the correct amount of darkish matter and quite a lot of interplay in order that we will detect it,” McGee stated.

A new model for dark matter

Constraints within the mass- and nucleon-intermediate coupling degree from the cooling of HB stars [25] and SN 1987A [12]in addition to uncommon Kaon decomposition [26] (grey shading). credit score: Bodily overview letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

And that is how the researchers conceived it: in particle physics, the interplay is often mediated by a selected particle, the so-called medium — and so is the interplay of darkish matter with bizarre matter. Each the composition of darkish matter and the operate of detection are detected by this medium, with the energy of the interplay relying on its mass: the better the mass, the weaker the interplay.

The medium should first be heavy sufficient for the correct quantity of darkish matter to be fashioned, and later mild sufficient in order that darkish matter will be detected in any respect. Resolution: There was a section transition after the formation of darkish matter, through which the mass of the medium abruptly decreased.

“So, on the one hand, the quantity of darkish matter stays fixed, and then again, the interplay is enhanced or strengthened in such a means that the darkish matter is immediately detectable,” Pearce stated.

The brand new mannequin covers nearly all the parameter vary of the deliberate experiments

“The HYPER mannequin of darkish matter is ready to cowl nearly all the vary that the brand new experiments are making out there,” Ellor stated.

Particularly, the analysis workforce first thought-about the utmost cross-section of the interplay medium with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be per astronomical observations and a few particle physics decompositions. The subsequent step was to see if there was a mannequin of darkish matter that confirmed this interplay.

“And that is the place we got here up with the thought of ​​transition,” McGee stated. “We then calculated the quantity of darkish matter current within the universe after which simulated the section transition utilizing our calculations.”

There are a slew of limitations to bear in mind, reminiscent of a hard and fast quantity of darkish matter.

“Right here, we’ve got to systematically take into account and embody a number of eventualities, for instance, asking the query whether or not it’s actually sure that our medium doesn’t abruptly result in the formation of darkish matterAnd that, after all, does not must be the case,” Ellor stated. However ultimately, we have been satisfied that HYPER Mannequin Works “.

Publication of the analysis within the journal Bodily overview letters.

extra data:
Gilly Elor et al, Maximizing Direct Detection Utilizing Extremely Interacting Particle Darkish Matter, Bodily overview letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

Introduction of
College of Michigan

the quote: A New Mannequin for Darkish Matter (2023, January 23) Retrieved January 23, 2023 from https://phys.org/information/2023-01-dark.html

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