Physics and cosmology are in crisis. Rescue requires a revision of the SpaceTime concept

dark matter

An elastic membrane mannequin of a darkish matter halo

the shape of the universe

The very best mannequin of our universe is an increasing balloon.

The 2 best theories in physics collide due to a defective mannequin of the universe.

By perceiving the universe as a (tremendous) increasing balloon, ideas comparable to wave and particle duality will be put collectively simply and coherently – and at last construct a fantastic panorama of nature and the universe.”

– Mr. Wu

INDORE, Madhya Pradesh, India, Jan. 27, 2023 / — What’s Spacetime?

SpaceTime isn’t a four-dimensional continuum; Arithmetic says one thing else!

Einstein’s imaginative and prescient of SpaceTime as a four-dimensional continuum results in a “Block Universe” the place there is no such thing as a distinction between previous, current, and future, and so they all exist on the identical time! This contradicts an astounding variety of observations in all sciences, and has been challenged by Mr. Subhajit Wu. A quick abstract of the analysis geared in direction of non-specialist audiences, # will be discovered right here. The unique prepress paper titled Quantum Mechanics and Normal Relativity are completely suitable, and have a typical origin: the (excessively) increasing balloon universe. # Link1 # Link2

The Minkowski SpaceTime Equation (MSTE) that explains all of particular relativity (together with time dilation, size contraction, and relativistic simultaneity) isn’t a 4D SpaceTime collection assertion. This error occurred because of our incomplete information of the true nature of imaginary numbers. There’s a hidden imaginary signal inside the MSTE, which characterizes the spatial dimensions of the time dimension and scale shift (+, +, +, -) as an alternative of (+, +, +, +). In contrast to actual numbers, the imaginary quantity (i) can’t be used as an impartial axis. An impartial axis means an additional dimension.

The imaginary quantity is simply wanted for the unreachable dimension, and doesn’t create a further dimension. The imaginary quantity is simply wanted by a trapped creature.

MSTE has been validated in numerous experiments, however is in truth a mathematical assertion for three-dimensional superlamellae, shifting at c pace within the fourth dimension in compact four-dimensional hyperspace. Thus the MSTE ideally describes a small part of the (hyper)increasing balloon universe, the place c is the rate of our universe’s radial improve. Utilizing this balloon mannequin, and contemplating the age of our universe to be 13.8 billion years, the calculated Hubble fixed worth (71.002 km/s/Mpc) matches effectively with the accepted values ​​(69.8 km/s/Mpc and 74 km/s/Mpc are measured by two separate strategies) . Since each the SpaceTime equation and Hubble’s legislation inform the identical story, it ought to give us nice confidence that we’re heading in the right direction to claiming that our universe is an (excessively) increasing balloon. Since our universe is increasing at a continuing fee fairly than accelerating (as is presently believed), we do not want darkish vitality, since we do not have to account for acceleration.

MSTE exhibits that relativity is about being trapped contained in the wall of an increasing (hyper) balloon, however being free to maneuver alongside the wall. The query is, “What is that this 3D wall of the balloon universe fabricated from?”

It is fabricated from (scalar) fields, particles, and it is simply resonance/excitation in that area. That is the essential assertion of the amazingly correct quantum area idea (QFT) that varieties the idea of the Customary Mannequin of particle physics. Thus, we get a glimpse of the unity between relativity and quantum mechanics.

The radius of the universe is an not possible course for us (which does not even exist for trapped creatures like us).

The radial outgrowth of the universe over time seems to us.

The balloon form of the universe creates two totally different frames of reference/views. The universe is seen in a different way from every perspective, because of the interchange of roles in house and time. However that is exactly what makes it potential to reconcile quantum mechanics with basic relativity, two pillars of contemporary physics. From the (balloon) universe perspective, simultaneity is absolute (as required by the Sagnac impact) and there’s absolute common time (as required by quantum mechanics). It is because absolutely the cosmic time that has elapsed because the Large Bang is only a perform of the radius of the universe. From our vantage level (which is on the floor of the balloon), our idea of SpaceTime is relative, native is absolute, and the pace of sunshine is the higher restrict (and stays fixed for each observer irrespective of their pace). These had been Einstein’s unshakable beliefs, shattered by his quantum entanglement experiments (which led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics final 12 months). Since each relative and absolute instances are potential, it solves the issue of time, which has stubbornly resisted reconciling QM and GR. Which perspective ought to prevail is decided by the dimensions scale.

Gravity and Darkness: The rubber movie/sheet mannequin is used to show basic relativity in faculties and faculties.

Fairly than taking it as an analogy, we must always take it actually. The wall of the balloon universe behaves similar to a rubber membrane. The distinction is that it’s a 3D sheet as an alternative of a 2D sheet. Huge our bodies comparable to stars and planets are embedded like skinny cash inside this identical wall (when seen from the fourth dimension), and produce an extension of this wall alongside the fourth dimension. Trapped creatures like us see this stretching as a distortion of the feel of 4D SpaceTime itself, and results in gravity as Normal Relativity (GR) insists. This dilation additionally produces gravitational time dilation itself (as predicted by Einstein).

Normal relativity stays the most effective idea of gravity. Nevertheless, at the moment’s best cosmological challenges comparable to darkish matter, black gap singularities (resulting in the ‘data loss’ paradox) and so forth. are simply traces of our misunderstanding of basic relativity. For the reason that 3D supersheet is one steady sheet, and since all close by huge objects stretch this sheet in a single course, the collective growth is exponentially amplified (please see picture).

The ensuing huge growth bends mild rays dramatically (via gravitational lensing) and provides the misunderstanding of huge quantities of darkish matter halo. The black gap singularity is simply an insider’s view of a trapped creature. On the heart of a unadorned singularity, time passes on the identical fee because it does in deep house, removed from any sources of gravity.

About Mr. Sabhajit Woh
Mr. Subhajit Waugh is presently serving as Scientific Officer. He obtained his grasp’s diploma in Physics from the Nationwide Institute of Know-how, Rourkela, in 2003, the place he was on the prime of his class. In 1996, he was awarded the celebrated NCERT Nationwide Expertise Scholarship.

Subhajit Wu
Raja Rummana Middle for Superior Know-how
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