El Campeon Farms within the Santa Monica Mountains preserves a singular breed with the blood of a 200-year-old Spanish Colonial
El Campeon Farms within the Santa Monica Mountains is reviving probably the most endangered horse breeds on the planet – the Santa Cruz Island Horse (SCI). The younger herd, now as much as 23 horses, often is the final of their variety, however a scientific breeding program is at present underway to extend their numbers.
Because the identify suggests, these horses got here from the 98 sq. mile Santa Cruz Island – one of many Channel Islands off our coast. Data present that horses have been first introduced in in 1830 – practically 200 years in the past.
In response to El Campion Farms basic supervisor Christy Reich, in an interview with Livestock Conservation, the island’s first horses have been Spanish colonial horses descended from these dropped at the New World on Spanish galleons to Central and South America. Ultimately, the “padres” (Catholic missionary clergymen) rode these horses so far as ca.
When Mexico established a penal colony on Santa Cruz Island in 1830, some Spanish horses have been despatched there. With the appearance of sheep farming in 1851, further horses have been introduced in to haul hay and provides from farm to farm—the brand new horses could or could not have been Spanish Colonies.
In response to ship data from 1873 to 1905, small numbers of horses have been periodically delivered or picked up from the island, however the remoted core herd remained and developed into its personal distinct breed. Data recorded in 1874 “about 125 saddle horses and mules,” however virtually half a century later, in 1922, that quantity had dropped to “97 head of horses” as a result of they have been displaced by cars.
Ultimately, ranching turned much less worthwhile on the island, and in response to one account, “horses roamed freely and bred amongst themselves for a number of many years”. In 1984, 40 horses remained, and in 1999, when the Nationwide Park Service took over, 15-19 of the surviving wild horses have been eliminated (accounts fluctuate).
They have been taken to a horse sanctuary in Northern California, however after residing with out predators for over 150 years, the animals had no flight response and have been preyed upon by mountain lions. Then the survivors have been taken to a shelter within the province of Tehama, the place they lived for about 15 years. El Campeon Farms bought 13 animals in 2014 in an effort to avoid wasting them by means of a scientific breeding program.
Santa Cruz Island horses are registered with the Livestock Conservancy and are listed below the “Essential” horse class.
Karen Blumenchen, an equine veterinary vet based mostly in Santa Barbara, studied the animals of their pure habitat on the island with UC Davis researchers from 1995-1998, analyzed their DNA, and printed a scientific paper about them. She describes the horses as genetically distinctive with “heirloom” genes that should be preserved.
It described a lot of distinct variations that set the Santa Cruz Island horses aside. Notably, they’ve infants at a really completely different time of yr than every other horse breed.
“These guys have been giving start from November to February,” she stated in a cellphone interview. They have not learn the ebook about ready longer hours for daylight. However the change was adaptive and helpful to life on that island—for the grass was inexperienced whereas feeding; After which when the grains and seeds got here in, that they had a higher-calorie meals obtainable to achieve weight once more throughout weaning.”
Blumenshine discovered that the island’s horses are stronger than different breeds, and get across the island with out vets or foot care.
“As a result of they have been continually on the transfer, their hooves scraped up sand, they usually have been textbook excellent,” she stated.
The SCI breed can be shorter and thicker than different horses.
“It was heavier than quite a lot of Spanish breeds, so possibly some draft horses combined in…they appear alike, like they’re associated, however not like every other breed I do know,” Blumenshine stated. “They jogged my memory of the previous California horses from after I was a child; with bigger heads and toes, which makes them extra strong. The bigger toes distribute the drive of every stride over extra sq. centimeters. Additionally they have tough manes, which in all probability additionally got here from draft horses.”
“When US breeders began breeding horses to have a sure look—smaller toes and heads—you lose outbred genes—genes that adapt to the atmosphere.”
One other factor that units the breed aside is its urge for food.
“Island horses additionally don’t want as a lot meals as different horses—if you happen to feed them an excessive amount of, they get overweight,” Blumenshine stated. We rescued them on the finish of a seven yr drought, they usually have been competing for meals with hundreds of sheep, they usually have been nonetheless very wholesome. They subsisted on native grass and imported non-native grasses for grazing.
“My hope in perpetuating the breed is probably to protect among the historical genes to move on if we bred them from different breeds,” she stated. “There’s worth in preserving these historical genes.”
Reich famous that horse breeds do not survive except individuals worth them for being good at one thing, and it was her job to determine what that was. I found their strengths in dressage and dealing, in addition to having unusually calm demeanor.
This additionally makes them priceless as remedy horses.
“They’re very calm and relaxed — nothing bothers them. They love residing exterior,” she stated.
The farm suspects there could have been an excessive amount of inbreeding in a small inhabitants, in order that they’re working with UC Davis to very fastidiously and slowly introduce extra genetic variety into the road.
“It was necessary to search out related horses, with calm tendencies and related physique varieties,” stated Reich. “Now we have been capable of finding some matches within the Lusitano and Andalusian bloodlines; they’re at present on maintain to see how these offspring develop. We take our management of those island horses very critically.”